cmd5checkpw-0.22/0040775000076400007640000000000007170306126012702 5ustar brushbrushcmd5checkpw-0.22/CHANGES0100664000076400007640000000054707170304526013702 0ustar brushbrush0.20
- initial public release
0.21
- accidentaly a debug version left my computer. It reads descriptor 0
instead of 3. It's fixed now.
0.22
- fix for a crash when user is not found in the passwd database.
- Support for PLAIN/LOGIN auth (so you can use cmd5checkpw for both CRAM-MD5
and PLAIN/LOGIN). Changes contributed by Javier Kohen .
cmd5checkpw-0.22/CREDITS0100664000076400007640000000045007045052126013715 0ustar brushbrushDan Bernstein - did the original checkpassword
Jedi/Sector One - did a plain text version of checkpassword. I borrowed few
line of code from him.
RSA Labs. - did the md5c.c and hold copyrights over it (read the source)
RFC 2104 authors - provided sample implementation of HMAC which i have used.
cmd5checkpw-0.22/INSTALL0100644000076400007640000000115007045051215013720 0ustar brushbrushLike any other piece of software (and information generally),
cmd5checkpw comes with NO WARRANTY.
How to install:
1. Compile the program.
% make
2. Install the programs and man page:
# make install
Now you should have an example poppasswd copied to your /etc directory and
cmd5checkpw binary in your /bin directory.
Now select a free user id in your system. Create that user in /etc/passwd
do "chown thatuser /etc/poppasswd" , "chmod 400 /etc/poppasswd",
"chown thatuser /bin/cmd5checkpw" and "chmod a+s /etc/cmd5checkpw".
Of course replace "thatuser" with username of the user you have created.
cmd5checkpw-0.22/Makefile0100664000076400007640000000073207045051364014343 0ustar brushbrush#
# makefile for cram-md5 checkpassword
#
TARGET=cmd5checkpw
SRCS=main.c md5c.c hmac_md5.c
MAKEFILE=Makefile
OBJS=${SRCS:.c=.o}
CC=gcc
CFLAGS=-c -g -Wall -O3
LD=gcc
LDFLAGS=-g -o ${TARGET}
all: cmd5checkpw
cmd5checkpw: ${OBJS}
${LD} ${LDFLAGS} ${OBJS}
clean:
rm -f ${OBJS} ${CODEOBJS} ${GENOBJS} ${TARGET} *~ core cmd5checkpw
co:
cd .. ; cvs checkout cmd5checkpw ; cd cmd5checkpw
cm:
cvs commit
install:
cp cmd5checkpw /bin/ ; cp cmd5checkpw.8 /usr/man/man8/
cmd5checkpw-0.22/README0100644000076400007640000000116507045051636013564 0ustar brushbrushcmd5checkpw 0.20, beta.
20000130
Krzysztof Dabrowski aka Brush/Elysium
http://www.elysium.pl/members/brush/cmd5checkpw/
Based on checkpassword by D. J. Bernstein, djb@pobox.com
http://pobox.com/~djb/checkpwd.html
cmd5checkpw provides a simple, uniform authorization solution for all
application that use CRAM-MD5 auth type. It tries to conform with
checkpassword's interface as much as possible.
Read included man page to learn how does it work.
INSTALL says how to set it up.
CREDITS contains information about who did what.
The cmd5checpw code is in the public domain except for files with different
license inside them.
cmd5checkpw-0.22/cmd5checkpw.80100644000076400007640000000512607170306004015162 0ustar brushbrush.TH cmd5checkpw 8
.SH NAME
cmd5checkpw \- check a cram-md5 authentication
.SH SYNOPSIS
.B cmd5checkpw
.I subprogram
[
.I args ...
]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.B cmd5checkpw
reads descriptor 3 through end of file
and then closes descriptor 3.
There must be at most 512 bytes of data before end of file.
The information supplied on descriptor 3
is a login name terminated by \e0,
a cram-md5 challenge terminated by \e0,
and a cram-md5 response terminated by \e0.
.B cmd5checkpw
encrypts the challenge with keyed MD5 using passwords from
.BR /etc/poppasswd .
It's compared with response (3rd parameter) and if they are the same
then
.B cmd5checkpw
uses
.B execvp
to run
.B subprogram
with the given arguments.
If they differ then it returns -1.
If challenge and response differ,
.B cmd5checkpw
exits 1.
If
.B cmd5checkpw
is misused,
it may instead exit 2.
If there is a temporary problem checking the password,
.B cmd5checkpw
exits 111.
.B cmd5checkpw
also tries to compare the supplied password with the password
in the /etc/poppasswd file so it can be used as a plain-text checkpassword
for PLAIN & LOGIN authtype (but we recommend using a crypted version for
security reasons). To use it, simply provide it with clear text password
as a challenge.
.SH "CHECKPASSWORD-COMPATIBLE TOOLS"
.B cmd5checkpw
tries to conform to the
.B checkpassword
interface.
There are other tools that offer the same interface as
.BR checkpassword .
Applications that use
.B checkpassword
are encouraged to take the
.B checkpassword
name as an argument,
so that they can be used with different
.BR checkpassword -compatible
tools.
Note that these tools do not follow the
.B getopt
interface.
Optional features are controlled through
(1) the tool name and
(2) environment variables.
.SH "PROCESS-STATE CHANGES"
Before invoking
.BR subprogram ,
.B cmd5checkpw
does not set up anything. Just because users from /etc/poppasswd does not
have to exist in the system so setting their uid,gid etc is not possible.
Other
.BR checkpassword -compatible
tools may make different changes to the process state.
These effects must be documented;
applications will differ in their requirements.
.SH "FILES"
/etc/poppasswd - this file contains pairs of logins and clear text passwords
separated by ":". It looks like this:
login1:password1
.br
login2:password2
Best way to protect it is to make it readable only for one specific user
different than you normal system users and make cmd5checkpw suid that user.
.SH "VERSION"
This documentation describes
.B cmd5checkpw
version 0.20.
See
.B http://www.elysium.pl/members/brush/cmd5checkpw/
for updates.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
checkpassword(8)
cmd5checkpw-0.22/global.h0100664000076400007640000000214707044344375014324 0ustar brushbrush/* GLOBAL.H - RSAREF types and constants */
#include
/* Copyright (C) RSA Laboratories, a division of RSA Data Security,
Inc., created 1991. All rights reserved.
*/
#ifndef _GLOBAL_H_
#define _GLOBAL_H_ 1
/* PROTOTYPES should be set to one if and only if the compiler supports
function argument prototyping.
The following makes PROTOTYPES default to 1 if it has not already been
defined as 0 with C compiler flags.
*/
#ifndef PROTOTYPES
#define PROTOTYPES 1
#endif
/* POINTER defines a generic pointer type */
typedef unsigned char *POINTER;
/* UINT2 defines a two byte word */
typedef unsigned short int UINT2;
/* UINT4 defines a four byte word */
typedef unsigned long int UINT4;
#ifndef NULL_PTR
#define NULL_PTR ((POINTER)0)
#endif
#ifndef UNUSED_ARG
#define UNUSED_ARG(x) x = *(&x);
#endif
/* PROTO_LIST is defined depending on how PROTOTYPES is defined above.
If using PROTOTYPES, then PROTO_LIST returns the list, otherwise it
returns an empty list.
*/
#if PROTOTYPES
#define PROTO_LIST(list) list
#else
#define PROTO_LIST(list) ()
#endif
#endif /* end _GLOBAL_H_ */
cmd5checkpw-0.22/hmac_md5.c0100664000076400007640000000513507044211115014515 0ustar brushbrush#include "global.h"
#include "md5.h"
/*
** Function: hmac_md5
*/
void hmac_md5(text, text_len, key, key_len, digest)
unsigned char* text; /* pointer to data stream */
int text_len; /* length of data stream */
unsigned char* key; /* pointer to authentication key */
int key_len; /* length of authentication key */
unsigned char *digest; /* caller digest to be filled in */
{
MD5_CTX context;
unsigned char k_ipad[65]; /* inner padding -
* key XORd with ipad
*/
unsigned char k_opad[65]; /* outer padding -
* key XORd with opad
*/
unsigned char tk[16];
int i;
/* if key is longer than 64 bytes reset it to key=MD5(key) */
if (key_len > 64) {
MD5_CTX tctx;
MD5Init(&tctx);
MD5Update(&tctx, key, key_len);
MD5Final(tk, &tctx);
key = tk;
key_len = 16;
}
/*
* the HMAC_MD5 transform looks like:
*
* MD5(K XOR opad, MD5(K XOR ipad, text))
*
* where K is an n byte key
* ipad is the byte 0x36 repeated 64 times
* opad is the byte 0x5c repeated 64 times
* and text is the data being protected
*/
/* start out by storing key in pads */
bzero( k_ipad, sizeof k_ipad);
bzero( k_opad, sizeof k_opad);
bcopy( key, k_ipad, key_len);
bcopy( key, k_opad, key_len);
/* XOR key with ipad and opad values */
for (i=0; i<64; i++) {
k_ipad[i] ^= 0x36;
k_opad[i] ^= 0x5c;
}
/*
* perform inner MD5
*/
MD5Init(&context); /* init context for 1st pass */
MD5Update(&context, k_ipad, 64); /* start with inner pad */
MD5Update(&context, text, text_len); /* then text of datagram */
MD5Final(digest, &context); /* finish up 1st pass */
/*
* perform outer MD5
*/
MD5Init(&context); /* init context for 2nd
* pass */
MD5Update(&context, k_opad, 64); /* start with outer pad */
MD5Update(&context, digest, 16); /* then results of 1st
* hash */
MD5Final(digest, &context); /* finish up 2nd pass */
}
cmd5checkpw-0.22/hmac_md5.h0100664000076400007640000000044407044211115014520 0ustar brushbrush
/* prototypes */
void hmac_md5( unsigned char* text, int text_len, unsigned char* key, int key_len, unsigned char* digest);
/* pointer to data stream */
/* length of data stream */
/* pointer to authentication key */
/* length of authentication key */
/* caller digest to be filled in */
cmd5checkpw-0.22/main.c0100644000076400007640000000407107170305311013762 0ustar brushbrush#include "global.h"
#include "md5.h"
#include "hmac_md5.h"
#include
#include
#include
#include
#define LINE_MAX 256
#define SMTP_PASSWD_FILE "/etc/poppasswd"
char up[513];
int uplen;
static char hextab[]="0123456789abcdef";
int doit(unsigned char *testlogin, unsigned char *challenge, unsigned char *response)
{
static char line[LINE_MAX + 1];
int found_user= 0;
unsigned char *password = NULL;
unsigned char digest[16];
unsigned char digascii[33];
unsigned char h;
FILE *fp;
int j;
char *linepnt;
if ((fp = fopen(SMTP_PASSWD_FILE, "rt")) == NULL) _exit(2);
while (fgets(line, LINE_MAX, fp) != NULL) {
if ((linepnt = strchr(line, '\n')) != NULL) {
*linepnt = 0;
}
if ((linepnt = strtok(line, ":")) == NULL) _exit(2);
if (strcmp(linepnt, testlogin) == 0) {
if ((linepnt = strtok(NULL, ":")) == NULL) _exit(2);
password = linepnt;
found_user = 1;
break;
}
}
fclose(fp);
if (!found_user) return(1);
hmac_md5( challenge, strlen(challenge), password, strlen(password), digest);
digascii[32]=0;
for (j=0;j<16;j++)
{
h=digest[j] >> 4;
digascii[2*j]=hextab[h];
h=digest[j] & 0x0f;
digascii[(2*j)+1]=hextab[h];
}
return(strcmp(digascii,response) && strcmp(password,challenge));
}
void main(int argc,char **argv)
{
char *login;
char *response;
char *challenge;
int r;
int i;
int accepted;
if (!argv[1]) _exit(2);
uplen = 0;
for (;;) {
do
r = read(3,up + uplen,sizeof(up) - uplen);
while ((r == -1) && (errno == EINTR));
if (r == -1) _exit(111);
if (r == 0) break;
uplen += r;
if (uplen >= sizeof(up)) _exit(1);
}
close(3);
i = 0;
login = up + i;
while (up[i++]) if (i == uplen) _exit(2);
challenge = up + i;
if (i == uplen) _exit(2);
while (up[i++]) if (i == uplen) _exit(2);
response = up + i;
accepted=doit(login,challenge,response);
for (i = 0;i < sizeof(up);++i) up[i] = 0;
if (accepted) _exit(1);
execvp(argv[1],argv + 1);
_exit(111);
}
cmd5checkpw-0.22/md5.h0100664000076400007640000000316107044211115013527 0ustar brushbrush/* MD5.H - header file for MD5C.C
*/
/* Copyright (C) 1991-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1991. All
rights reserved.
License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it
is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest
Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this software
or this function.
License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided
that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA Data
Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm" in all material
mentioning or referencing the derived work.
RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
without express or implied warranty of any kind.
These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
documentation and/or software.
*/
#ifndef _MD5_H_
#define _MD5_H_ 1
#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif
/* MD5 context. */
typedef struct {
UINT4 state[4]; /* state (ABCD) */
UINT4 count[2]; /* number of bits, modulo 2^64 (lsb first) */
unsigned char buffer[64]; /* input buffer */
} MD5_CTX;
void MD5Init PROTO_LIST ((MD5_CTX *));
void MD5Update PROTO_LIST
((MD5_CTX *, unsigned char *, unsigned int));
void MD5Final PROTO_LIST ((unsigned char [16], MD5_CTX *));
#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif
#endif
cmd5checkpw-0.22/md5c.c0100664000076400007640000002501307044211115013665 0ustar brushbrush/* MD5C.C - RSA Data Security, Inc., MD5 message-digest algorithm
*/
/* Copyright (C) 1991-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1991. All
rights reserved.
License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it
is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest
Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this software
or this function.
License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided
that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA Data
Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm" in all material
mentioning or referencing the derived work.
RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
without express or implied warranty of any kind.
These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
documentation and/or software.
*/
#include "global.h"
#include "md5.h"
/* Constants for MD5Transform routine.
*/
#define S11 7
#define S12 12
#define S13 17
#define S14 22
#define S21 5
#define S22 9
#define S23 14
#define S24 20
#define S31 4
#define S32 11
#define S33 16
#define S34 23
#define S41 6
#define S42 10
#define S43 15
#define S44 21
static void MD5Transform PROTO_LIST ((UINT4 [4], unsigned char [64]));
static void Encode PROTO_LIST
((unsigned char *, UINT4 *, unsigned int));
static void Decode PROTO_LIST
((UINT4 *, unsigned char *, unsigned int));
static void MD5_memcpy PROTO_LIST ((POINTER, POINTER, unsigned int));
static void MD5_memset PROTO_LIST ((POINTER, int, unsigned int));
static unsigned char PADDING[64] = {
0x80, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
};
/* F, G, H and I are basic MD5 functions.
*/
#define F(x, y, z) (((x) & (y)) | ((~x) & (z)))
#define G(x, y, z) (((x) & (z)) | ((y) & (~z)))
#define H(x, y, z) ((x) ^ (y) ^ (z))
#define I(x, y, z) ((y) ^ ((x) | (~z)))
/* ROTATE_LEFT rotates x left n bits.
*/
#define ROTATE_LEFT(x, n) (((x) << (n)) | ((x) >> (32-(n))))
/* FF, GG, HH, and II transformations for rounds 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Rotation is separate from addition to prevent recomputation.
*/
#define FF(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += F ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}
#define GG(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += G ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}
#define HH(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += H ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}
#define II(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += I ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}
/* MD5 initialization. Begins an MD5 operation, writing a new context.
*/
void MD5Init (context)
MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
{
context->count[0] = context->count[1] = 0;
/* Load magic initialization constants.
*/
context->state[0] = 0x67452301;
context->state[1] = 0xefcdab89;
context->state[2] = 0x98badcfe;
context->state[3] = 0x10325476;
}
/* MD5 block update operation. Continues an MD5 message-digest
operation, processing another message block, and updating the
context.
*/
void MD5Update (context, input, inputLen)
MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
unsigned char *input; /* input block */
unsigned int inputLen; /* length of input block */
{
unsigned int i, index, partLen;
/* Compute number of bytes mod 64 */
index = (unsigned int)((context->count[0] >> 3) & 0x3F);
/* Update number of bits */
if ((context->count[0] += ((UINT4)inputLen << 3))
< ((UINT4)inputLen << 3))
context->count[1]++;
context->count[1] += ((UINT4)inputLen >> 29);
partLen = 64 - index;
/* Transform as many times as possible.
*/
if (inputLen >= partLen) {
MD5_memcpy
((POINTER)&context->buffer[index], (POINTER)input, partLen);
MD5Transform (context->state, context->buffer);
for (i = partLen; i + 63 < inputLen; i += 64)
MD5Transform (context->state, &input[i]);
index = 0;
}
else
i = 0;
/* Buffer remaining input */
MD5_memcpy
((POINTER)&context->buffer[index], (POINTER)&input[i],
inputLen-i);
}
/* MD5 finalization. Ends an MD5 message-digest operation, writing the
the message digest and zeroizing the context.
*/
void MD5Final (digest, context)
unsigned char digest[16]; /* message digest */
MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
{
unsigned char bits[8];
unsigned int index, padLen;
/* Save number of bits */
Encode (bits, context->count, 8);
/* Pad out to 56 mod 64.
*/
index = (unsigned int)((context->count[0] >> 3) & 0x3f);
padLen = (index < 56) ? (56 - index) : (120 - index);
MD5Update (context, PADDING, padLen);
/* Append length (before padding) */
MD5Update (context, bits, 8);
/* Store state in digest */
Encode (digest, context->state, 16);
/* Zeroize sensitive information.
*/
MD5_memset ((POINTER)context, 0, sizeof (*context));
}
/* MD5 basic transformation. Transforms state based on block.
*/
static void MD5Transform (state, block)
UINT4 state[4];
unsigned char block[64];
{
UINT4 a = state[0], b = state[1], c = state[2], d = state[3], x[16];
Decode (x, block, 64);
/* Round 1 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 0], S11, 0xd76aa478); /* 1 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 1], S12, 0xe8c7b756); /* 2 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[ 2], S13, 0x242070db); /* 3 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[ 3], S14, 0xc1bdceee); /* 4 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 4], S11, 0xf57c0faf); /* 5 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 5], S12, 0x4787c62a); /* 6 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[ 6], S13, 0xa8304613); /* 7 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[ 7], S14, 0xfd469501); /* 8 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 8], S11, 0x698098d8); /* 9 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 9], S12, 0x8b44f7af); /* 10 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[10], S13, 0xffff5bb1); /* 11 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[11], S14, 0x895cd7be); /* 12 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[12], S11, 0x6b901122); /* 13 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[13], S12, 0xfd987193); /* 14 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[14], S13, 0xa679438e); /* 15 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[15], S14, 0x49b40821); /* 16 */
/* Round 2 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 1], S21, 0xf61e2562); /* 17 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[ 6], S22, 0xc040b340); /* 18 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[11], S23, 0x265e5a51); /* 19 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 0], S24, 0xe9b6c7aa); /* 20 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 5], S21, 0xd62f105d); /* 21 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[10], S22, 0x2441453); /* 22 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[15], S23, 0xd8a1e681); /* 23 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 4], S24, 0xe7d3fbc8); /* 24 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 9], S21, 0x21e1cde6); /* 25 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[14], S22, 0xc33707d6); /* 26 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[ 3], S23, 0xf4d50d87); /* 27 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 8], S24, 0x455a14ed); /* 28 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[13], S21, 0xa9e3e905); /* 29 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[ 2], S22, 0xfcefa3f8); /* 30 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[ 7], S23, 0x676f02d9); /* 31 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[12], S24, 0x8d2a4c8a); /* 32 */
/* Round 3 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 5], S31, 0xfffa3942); /* 33 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 8], S32, 0x8771f681); /* 34 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[11], S33, 0x6d9d6122); /* 35 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[14], S34, 0xfde5380c); /* 36 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 1], S31, 0xa4beea44); /* 37 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 4], S32, 0x4bdecfa9); /* 38 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[ 7], S33, 0xf6bb4b60); /* 39 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[10], S34, 0xbebfbc70); /* 40 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[13], S31, 0x289b7ec6); /* 41 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 0], S32, 0xeaa127fa); /* 42 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[ 3], S33, 0xd4ef3085); /* 43 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[ 6], S34, 0x4881d05); /* 44 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 9], S31, 0xd9d4d039); /* 45 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[12], S32, 0xe6db99e5); /* 46 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[15], S33, 0x1fa27cf8); /* 47 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[ 2], S34, 0xc4ac5665); /* 48 */
/* Round 4 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[ 0], S41, 0xf4292244); /* 49 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[ 7], S42, 0x432aff97); /* 50 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[14], S43, 0xab9423a7); /* 51 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[ 5], S44, 0xfc93a039); /* 52 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[12], S41, 0x655b59c3); /* 53 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[ 3], S42, 0x8f0ccc92); /* 54 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[10], S43, 0xffeff47d); /* 55 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[ 1], S44, 0x85845dd1); /* 56 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[ 8], S41, 0x6fa87e4f); /* 57 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[15], S42, 0xfe2ce6e0); /* 58 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[ 6], S43, 0xa3014314); /* 59 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[13], S44, 0x4e0811a1); /* 60 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[ 4], S41, 0xf7537e82); /* 61 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[11], S42, 0xbd3af235); /* 62 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[ 2], S43, 0x2ad7d2bb); /* 63 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[ 9], S44, 0xeb86d391); /* 64 */
state[0] += a;
state[1] += b;
state[2] += c;
state[3] += d;
/* Zeroize sensitive information.
*/
MD5_memset ((POINTER)x, 0, sizeof (x));
}
/* Encodes input (UINT4) into output (unsigned char). Assumes len is
a multiple of 4.
*/
static void Encode (output, input, len)
unsigned char *output;
UINT4 *input;
unsigned int len;
{
unsigned int i, j;
for (i = 0, j = 0; j < len; i++, j += 4) {
output[j] = (unsigned char)(input[i] & 0xff);
output[j+1] = (unsigned char)((input[i] >> 8) & 0xff);
output[j+2] = (unsigned char)((input[i] >> 16) & 0xff);
output[j+3] = (unsigned char)((input[i] >> 24) & 0xff);
}
}
/* Decodes input (unsigned char) into output (UINT4). Assumes len is
a multiple of 4.
*/
static void Decode (output, input, len)
UINT4 *output;
unsigned char *input;
unsigned int len;
{
unsigned int i, j;
for (i = 0, j = 0; j < len; i++, j += 4)
output[i] = ((UINT4)input[j]) | (((UINT4)input[j+1]) << 8) |
(((UINT4)input[j+2]) << 16) | (((UINT4)input[j+3]) << 24);
}
/* Note: Replace "for loop" with standard memcpy if possible.
*/
static void MD5_memcpy (output, input, len)
POINTER output;
POINTER input;
unsigned int len;
{
unsigned int i;
for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
output[i] = input[i];
}
/* Note: Replace "for loop" with standard memset if possible.
*/
static void MD5_memset (output, value, len)
POINTER output;
int value;
unsigned int len;
{
unsigned int i;
for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
((char *)output)[i] = (char)value;
}
cmd5checkpw-0.22/poppasswd0100664000076400007640000000001507044403002014625 0ustar brushbrushbrush:dupa98
cmd5checkpw-0.22/rfc1321.txt0100664000076400007640000010706007044211115014516 0ustar brushbrush
Network Working Group R. Rivest
Request for Comments: 1321 MIT Laboratory for Computer Science
and RSA Data Security, Inc.
April 1992
The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm
Status of this Memo
This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does
not specify an Internet standard. Distribution of this memo is
unlimited.
Acknowlegements
We would like to thank Don Coppersmith, Burt Kaliski, Ralph Merkle,
David Chaum, and Noam Nisan for numerous helpful comments and
suggestions.
Table of Contents
1. Executive Summary 1
2. Terminology and Notation 2
3. MD5 Algorithm Description 3
4. Summary 6
5. Differences Between MD4 and MD5 6
References 7
APPENDIX A - Reference Implementation 7
Security Considerations 21
Author's Address 21
1. Executive Summary
This document describes the MD5 message-digest algorithm. The
algorithm takes as input a message of arbitrary length and produces
as output a 128-bit "fingerprint" or "message digest" of the input.
It is conjectured that it is computationally infeasible to produce
two messages having the same message digest, or to produce any
message having a given prespecified target message digest. The MD5
algorithm is intended for digital signature applications, where a
large file must be "compressed" in a secure manner before being
encrypted with a private (secret) key under a public-key cryptosystem
such as RSA.
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
The MD5 algorithm is designed to be quite fast on 32-bit machines. In
addition, the MD5 algorithm does not require any large substitution
tables; the algorithm can be coded quite compactly.
The MD5 algorithm is an extension of the MD4 message-digest algorithm
1,2]. MD5 is slightly slower than MD4, but is more "conservative" in
design. MD5 was designed because it was felt that MD4 was perhaps
being adopted for use more quickly than justified by the existing
critical review; because MD4 was designed to be exceptionally fast,
it is "at the edge" in terms of risking successful cryptanalytic
attack. MD5 backs off a bit, giving up a little in speed for a much
greater likelihood of ultimate security. It incorporates some
suggestions made by various reviewers, and contains additional
optimizations. The MD5 algorithm is being placed in the public domain
for review and possible adoption as a standard.
For OSI-based applications, MD5's object identifier is
md5 OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::=
iso(1) member-body(2) US(840) rsadsi(113549) digestAlgorithm(2) 5}
In the X.509 type AlgorithmIdentifier [3], the parameters for MD5
should have type NULL.
2. Terminology and Notation
In this document a "word" is a 32-bit quantity and a "byte" is an
eight-bit quantity. A sequence of bits can be interpreted in a
natural manner as a sequence of bytes, where each consecutive group
of eight bits is interpreted as a byte with the high-order (most
significant) bit of each byte listed first. Similarly, a sequence of
bytes can be interpreted as a sequence of 32-bit words, where each
consecutive group of four bytes is interpreted as a word with the
low-order (least significant) byte given first.
Let x_i denote "x sub i". If the subscript is an expression, we
surround it in braces, as in x_{i+1}. Similarly, we use ^ for
superscripts (exponentiation), so that x^i denotes x to the i-th
power.
Let the symbol "+" denote addition of words (i.e., modulo-2^32
addition). Let X <<< s denote the 32-bit value obtained by circularly
shifting (rotating) X left by s bit positions. Let not(X) denote the
bit-wise complement of X, and let X v Y denote the bit-wise OR of X
and Y. Let X xor Y denote the bit-wise XOR of X and Y, and let XY
denote the bit-wise AND of X and Y.
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
3. MD5 Algorithm Description
We begin by supposing that we have a b-bit message as input, and that
we wish to find its message digest. Here b is an arbitrary
nonnegative integer; b may be zero, it need not be a multiple of
eight, and it may be arbitrarily large. We imagine the bits of the
message written down as follows:
m_0 m_1 ... m_{b-1}
The following five steps are performed to compute the message digest
of the message.
3.1 Step 1. Append Padding Bits
The message is "padded" (extended) so that its length (in bits) is
congruent to 448, modulo 512. That is, the message is extended so
that it is just 64 bits shy of being a multiple of 512 bits long.
Padding is always performed, even if the length of the message is
already congruent to 448, modulo 512.
Padding is performed as follows: a single "1" bit is appended to the
message, and then "0" bits are appended so that the length in bits of
the padded message becomes congruent to 448, modulo 512. In all, at
least one bit and at most 512 bits are appended.
3.2 Step 2. Append Length
A 64-bit representation of b (the length of the message before the
padding bits were added) is appended to the result of the previous
step. In the unlikely event that b is greater than 2^64, then only
the low-order 64 bits of b are used. (These bits are appended as two
32-bit words and appended low-order word first in accordance with the
previous conventions.)
At this point the resulting message (after padding with bits and with
b) has a length that is an exact multiple of 512 bits. Equivalently,
this message has a length that is an exact multiple of 16 (32-bit)
words. Let M[0 ... N-1] denote the words of the resulting message,
where N is a multiple of 16.
3.3 Step 3. Initialize MD Buffer
A four-word buffer (A,B,C,D) is used to compute the message digest.
Here each of A, B, C, D is a 32-bit register. These registers are
initialized to the following values in hexadecimal, low-order bytes
first):
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
word A: 01 23 45 67
word B: 89 ab cd ef
word C: fe dc ba 98
word D: 76 54 32 10
3.4 Step 4. Process Message in 16-Word Blocks
We first define four auxiliary functions that each take as input
three 32-bit words and produce as output one 32-bit word.
F(X,Y,Z) = XY v not(X) Z
G(X,Y,Z) = XZ v Y not(Z)
H(X,Y,Z) = X xor Y xor Z
I(X,Y,Z) = Y xor (X v not(Z))
In each bit position F acts as a conditional: if X then Y else Z.
The function F could have been defined using + instead of v since XY
and not(X)Z will never have 1's in the same bit position.) It is
interesting to note that if the bits of X, Y, and Z are independent
and unbiased, the each bit of F(X,Y,Z) will be independent and
unbiased.
The functions G, H, and I are similar to the function F, in that they
act in "bitwise parallel" to produce their output from the bits of X,
Y, and Z, in such a manner that if the corresponding bits of X, Y,
and Z are independent and unbiased, then each bit of G(X,Y,Z),
H(X,Y,Z), and I(X,Y,Z) will be independent and unbiased. Note that
the function H is the bit-wise "xor" or "parity" function of its
inputs.
This step uses a 64-element table T[1 ... 64] constructed from the
sine function. Let T[i] denote the i-th element of the table, which
is equal to the integer part of 4294967296 times abs(sin(i)), where i
is in radians. The elements of the table are given in the appendix.
Do the following:
/* Process each 16-word block. */
For i = 0 to N/16-1 do
/* Copy block i into X. */
For j = 0 to 15 do
Set X[j] to M[i*16+j].
end /* of loop on j */
/* Save A as AA, B as BB, C as CC, and D as DD. */
AA = A
BB = B
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CC = C
DD = D
/* Round 1. */
/* Let [abcd k s i] denote the operation
a = b + ((a + F(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) <<< s). */
/* Do the following 16 operations. */
[ABCD 0 7 1] [DABC 1 12 2] [CDAB 2 17 3] [BCDA 3 22 4]
[ABCD 4 7 5] [DABC 5 12 6] [CDAB 6 17 7] [BCDA 7 22 8]
[ABCD 8 7 9] [DABC 9 12 10] [CDAB 10 17 11] [BCDA 11 22 12]
[ABCD 12 7 13] [DABC 13 12 14] [CDAB 14 17 15] [BCDA 15 22 16]
/* Round 2. */
/* Let [abcd k s i] denote the operation
a = b + ((a + G(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) <<< s). */
/* Do the following 16 operations. */
[ABCD 1 5 17] [DABC 6 9 18] [CDAB 11 14 19] [BCDA 0 20 20]
[ABCD 5 5 21] [DABC 10 9 22] [CDAB 15 14 23] [BCDA 4 20 24]
[ABCD 9 5 25] [DABC 14 9 26] [CDAB 3 14 27] [BCDA 8 20 28]
[ABCD 13 5 29] [DABC 2 9 30] [CDAB 7 14 31] [BCDA 12 20 32]
/* Round 3. */
/* Let [abcd k s t] denote the operation
a = b + ((a + H(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) <<< s). */
/* Do the following 16 operations. */
[ABCD 5 4 33] [DABC 8 11 34] [CDAB 11 16 35] [BCDA 14 23 36]
[ABCD 1 4 37] [DABC 4 11 38] [CDAB 7 16 39] [BCDA 10 23 40]
[ABCD 13 4 41] [DABC 0 11 42] [CDAB 3 16 43] [BCDA 6 23 44]
[ABCD 9 4 45] [DABC 12 11 46] [CDAB 15 16 47] [BCDA 2 23 48]
/* Round 4. */
/* Let [abcd k s t] denote the operation
a = b + ((a + I(b,c,d) + X[k] + T[i]) <<< s). */
/* Do the following 16 operations. */
[ABCD 0 6 49] [DABC 7 10 50] [CDAB 14 15 51] [BCDA 5 21 52]
[ABCD 12 6 53] [DABC 3 10 54] [CDAB 10 15 55] [BCDA 1 21 56]
[ABCD 8 6 57] [DABC 15 10 58] [CDAB 6 15 59] [BCDA 13 21 60]
[ABCD 4 6 61] [DABC 11 10 62] [CDAB 2 15 63] [BCDA 9 21 64]
/* Then perform the following additions. (That is increment each
of the four registers by the value it had before this block
was started.) */
A = A + AA
B = B + BB
C = C + CC
D = D + DD
end /* of loop on i */
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
3.5 Step 5. Output
The message digest produced as output is A, B, C, D. That is, we
begin with the low-order byte of A, and end with the high-order byte
of D.
This completes the description of MD5. A reference implementation in
C is given in the appendix.
4. Summary
The MD5 message-digest algorithm is simple to implement, and provides
a "fingerprint" or message digest of a message of arbitrary length.
It is conjectured that the difficulty of coming up with two messages
having the same message digest is on the order of 2^64 operations,
and that the difficulty of coming up with any message having a given
message digest is on the order of 2^128 operations. The MD5 algorithm
has been carefully scrutinized for weaknesses. It is, however, a
relatively new algorithm and further security analysis is of course
justified, as is the case with any new proposal of this sort.
5. Differences Between MD4 and MD5
The following are the differences between MD4 and MD5:
1. A fourth round has been added.
2. Each step now has a unique additive constant.
3. The function g in round 2 was changed from (XY v XZ v YZ) to
(XZ v Y not(Z)) to make g less symmetric.
4. Each step now adds in the result of the previous step. This
promotes a faster "avalanche effect".
5. The order in which input words are accessed in rounds 2 and
3 is changed, to make these patterns less like each other.
6. The shift amounts in each round have been approximately
optimized, to yield a faster "avalanche effect." The shifts in
different rounds are distinct.
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
References
[1] Rivest, R., "The MD4 Message Digest Algorithm", RFC 1320, MIT and
RSA Data Security, Inc., April 1992.
[2] Rivest, R., "The MD4 message digest algorithm", in A.J. Menezes
and S.A. Vanstone, editors, Advances in Cryptology - CRYPTO '90
Proceedings, pages 303-311, Springer-Verlag, 1991.
[3] CCITT Recommendation X.509 (1988), "The Directory -
Authentication Framework."
APPENDIX A - Reference Implementation
This appendix contains the following files taken from RSAREF: A
Cryptographic Toolkit for Privacy-Enhanced Mail:
global.h -- global header file
md5.h -- header file for MD5
md5c.c -- source code for MD5
For more information on RSAREF, send email to .
The appendix also includes the following file:
mddriver.c -- test driver for MD2, MD4 and MD5
The driver compiles for MD5 by default but can compile for MD2 or MD4
if the symbol MD is defined on the C compiler command line as 2 or 4.
The implementation is portable and should work on many different
plaforms. However, it is not difficult to optimize the implementation
on particular platforms, an exercise left to the reader. For example,
on "little-endian" platforms where the lowest-addressed byte in a 32-
bit word is the least significant and there are no alignment
restrictions, the call to Decode in MD5Transform can be replaced with
a typecast.
A.1 global.h
/* GLOBAL.H - RSAREF types and constants
*/
/* PROTOTYPES should be set to one if and only if the compiler supports
function argument prototyping.
The following makes PROTOTYPES default to 0 if it has not already
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
been defined with C compiler flags.
*/
#ifndef PROTOTYPES
#define PROTOTYPES 0
#endif
/* POINTER defines a generic pointer type */
typedef unsigned char *POINTER;
/* UINT2 defines a two byte word */
typedef unsigned short int UINT2;
/* UINT4 defines a four byte word */
typedef unsigned long int UINT4;
/* PROTO_LIST is defined depending on how PROTOTYPES is defined above.
If using PROTOTYPES, then PROTO_LIST returns the list, otherwise it
returns an empty list.
*/
#if PROTOTYPES
#define PROTO_LIST(list) list
#else
#define PROTO_LIST(list) ()
#endif
A.2 md5.h
/* MD5.H - header file for MD5C.C
*/
/* Copyright (C) 1991-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1991. All
rights reserved.
License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it
is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest
Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this software
or this function.
License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided
that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA Data
Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm" in all material
mentioning or referencing the derived work.
RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
without express or implied warranty of any kind.
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
documentation and/or software.
*/
/* MD5 context. */
typedef struct {
UINT4 state[4]; /* state (ABCD) */
UINT4 count[2]; /* number of bits, modulo 2^64 (lsb first) */
unsigned char buffer[64]; /* input buffer */
} MD5_CTX;
void MD5Init PROTO_LIST ((MD5_CTX *));
void MD5Update PROTO_LIST
((MD5_CTX *, unsigned char *, unsigned int));
void MD5Final PROTO_LIST ((unsigned char [16], MD5_CTX *));
A.3 md5c.c
/* MD5C.C - RSA Data Security, Inc., MD5 message-digest algorithm
*/
/* Copyright (C) 1991-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1991. All
rights reserved.
License to copy and use this software is granted provided that it
is identified as the "RSA Data Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest
Algorithm" in all material mentioning or referencing this software
or this function.
License is also granted to make and use derivative works provided
that such works are identified as "derived from the RSA Data
Security, Inc. MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm" in all material
mentioning or referencing the derived work.
RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
without express or implied warranty of any kind.
These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
documentation and/or software.
*/
#include "global.h"
#include "md5.h"
/* Constants for MD5Transform routine.
*/
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
#define S11 7
#define S12 12
#define S13 17
#define S14 22
#define S21 5
#define S22 9
#define S23 14
#define S24 20
#define S31 4
#define S32 11
#define S33 16
#define S34 23
#define S41 6
#define S42 10
#define S43 15
#define S44 21
static void MD5Transform PROTO_LIST ((UINT4 [4], unsigned char [64]));
static void Encode PROTO_LIST
((unsigned char *, UINT4 *, unsigned int));
static void Decode PROTO_LIST
((UINT4 *, unsigned char *, unsigned int));
static void MD5_memcpy PROTO_LIST ((POINTER, POINTER, unsigned int));
static void MD5_memset PROTO_LIST ((POINTER, int, unsigned int));
static unsigned char PADDING[64] = {
0x80, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0
};
/* F, G, H and I are basic MD5 functions.
*/
#define F(x, y, z) (((x) & (y)) | ((~x) & (z)))
#define G(x, y, z) (((x) & (z)) | ((y) & (~z)))
#define H(x, y, z) ((x) ^ (y) ^ (z))
#define I(x, y, z) ((y) ^ ((x) | (~z)))
/* ROTATE_LEFT rotates x left n bits.
*/
#define ROTATE_LEFT(x, n) (((x) << (n)) | ((x) >> (32-(n))))
/* FF, GG, HH, and II transformations for rounds 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Rotation is separate from addition to prevent recomputation.
*/
#define FF(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += F ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
(a) += (b); \
}
#define GG(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += G ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}
#define HH(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += H ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}
#define II(a, b, c, d, x, s, ac) { \
(a) += I ((b), (c), (d)) + (x) + (UINT4)(ac); \
(a) = ROTATE_LEFT ((a), (s)); \
(a) += (b); \
}
/* MD5 initialization. Begins an MD5 operation, writing a new context.
*/
void MD5Init (context)
MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
{
context->count[0] = context->count[1] = 0;
/* Load magic initialization constants.
*/
context->state[0] = 0x67452301;
context->state[1] = 0xefcdab89;
context->state[2] = 0x98badcfe;
context->state[3] = 0x10325476;
}
/* MD5 block update operation. Continues an MD5 message-digest
operation, processing another message block, and updating the
context.
*/
void MD5Update (context, input, inputLen)
MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
unsigned char *input; /* input block */
unsigned int inputLen; /* length of input block */
{
unsigned int i, index, partLen;
/* Compute number of bytes mod 64 */
index = (unsigned int)((context->count[0] >> 3) & 0x3F);
/* Update number of bits */
if ((context->count[0] += ((UINT4)inputLen << 3))
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
< ((UINT4)inputLen << 3))
context->count[1]++;
context->count[1] += ((UINT4)inputLen >> 29);
partLen = 64 - index;
/* Transform as many times as possible.
*/
if (inputLen >= partLen) {
MD5_memcpy
((POINTER)&context->buffer[index], (POINTER)input, partLen);
MD5Transform (context->state, context->buffer);
for (i = partLen; i + 63 < inputLen; i += 64)
MD5Transform (context->state, &input[i]);
index = 0;
}
else
i = 0;
/* Buffer remaining input */
MD5_memcpy
((POINTER)&context->buffer[index], (POINTER)&input[i],
inputLen-i);
}
/* MD5 finalization. Ends an MD5 message-digest operation, writing the
the message digest and zeroizing the context.
*/
void MD5Final (digest, context)
unsigned char digest[16]; /* message digest */
MD5_CTX *context; /* context */
{
unsigned char bits[8];
unsigned int index, padLen;
/* Save number of bits */
Encode (bits, context->count, 8);
/* Pad out to 56 mod 64.
*/
index = (unsigned int)((context->count[0] >> 3) & 0x3f);
padLen = (index < 56) ? (56 - index) : (120 - index);
MD5Update (context, PADDING, padLen);
/* Append length (before padding) */
MD5Update (context, bits, 8);
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
/* Store state in digest */
Encode (digest, context->state, 16);
/* Zeroize sensitive information.
*/
MD5_memset ((POINTER)context, 0, sizeof (*context));
}
/* MD5 basic transformation. Transforms state based on block.
*/
static void MD5Transform (state, block)
UINT4 state[4];
unsigned char block[64];
{
UINT4 a = state[0], b = state[1], c = state[2], d = state[3], x[16];
Decode (x, block, 64);
/* Round 1 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 0], S11, 0xd76aa478); /* 1 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 1], S12, 0xe8c7b756); /* 2 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[ 2], S13, 0x242070db); /* 3 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[ 3], S14, 0xc1bdceee); /* 4 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 4], S11, 0xf57c0faf); /* 5 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 5], S12, 0x4787c62a); /* 6 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[ 6], S13, 0xa8304613); /* 7 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[ 7], S14, 0xfd469501); /* 8 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[ 8], S11, 0x698098d8); /* 9 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[ 9], S12, 0x8b44f7af); /* 10 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[10], S13, 0xffff5bb1); /* 11 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[11], S14, 0x895cd7be); /* 12 */
FF (a, b, c, d, x[12], S11, 0x6b901122); /* 13 */
FF (d, a, b, c, x[13], S12, 0xfd987193); /* 14 */
FF (c, d, a, b, x[14], S13, 0xa679438e); /* 15 */
FF (b, c, d, a, x[15], S14, 0x49b40821); /* 16 */
/* Round 2 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 1], S21, 0xf61e2562); /* 17 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[ 6], S22, 0xc040b340); /* 18 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[11], S23, 0x265e5a51); /* 19 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 0], S24, 0xe9b6c7aa); /* 20 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 5], S21, 0xd62f105d); /* 21 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[10], S22, 0x2441453); /* 22 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[15], S23, 0xd8a1e681); /* 23 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 4], S24, 0xe7d3fbc8); /* 24 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[ 9], S21, 0x21e1cde6); /* 25 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[14], S22, 0xc33707d6); /* 26 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[ 3], S23, 0xf4d50d87); /* 27 */
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
GG (b, c, d, a, x[ 8], S24, 0x455a14ed); /* 28 */
GG (a, b, c, d, x[13], S21, 0xa9e3e905); /* 29 */
GG (d, a, b, c, x[ 2], S22, 0xfcefa3f8); /* 30 */
GG (c, d, a, b, x[ 7], S23, 0x676f02d9); /* 31 */
GG (b, c, d, a, x[12], S24, 0x8d2a4c8a); /* 32 */
/* Round 3 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 5], S31, 0xfffa3942); /* 33 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 8], S32, 0x8771f681); /* 34 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[11], S33, 0x6d9d6122); /* 35 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[14], S34, 0xfde5380c); /* 36 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 1], S31, 0xa4beea44); /* 37 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 4], S32, 0x4bdecfa9); /* 38 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[ 7], S33, 0xf6bb4b60); /* 39 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[10], S34, 0xbebfbc70); /* 40 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[13], S31, 0x289b7ec6); /* 41 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[ 0], S32, 0xeaa127fa); /* 42 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[ 3], S33, 0xd4ef3085); /* 43 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[ 6], S34, 0x4881d05); /* 44 */
HH (a, b, c, d, x[ 9], S31, 0xd9d4d039); /* 45 */
HH (d, a, b, c, x[12], S32, 0xe6db99e5); /* 46 */
HH (c, d, a, b, x[15], S33, 0x1fa27cf8); /* 47 */
HH (b, c, d, a, x[ 2], S34, 0xc4ac5665); /* 48 */
/* Round 4 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[ 0], S41, 0xf4292244); /* 49 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[ 7], S42, 0x432aff97); /* 50 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[14], S43, 0xab9423a7); /* 51 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[ 5], S44, 0xfc93a039); /* 52 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[12], S41, 0x655b59c3); /* 53 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[ 3], S42, 0x8f0ccc92); /* 54 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[10], S43, 0xffeff47d); /* 55 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[ 1], S44, 0x85845dd1); /* 56 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[ 8], S41, 0x6fa87e4f); /* 57 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[15], S42, 0xfe2ce6e0); /* 58 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[ 6], S43, 0xa3014314); /* 59 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[13], S44, 0x4e0811a1); /* 60 */
II (a, b, c, d, x[ 4], S41, 0xf7537e82); /* 61 */
II (d, a, b, c, x[11], S42, 0xbd3af235); /* 62 */
II (c, d, a, b, x[ 2], S43, 0x2ad7d2bb); /* 63 */
II (b, c, d, a, x[ 9], S44, 0xeb86d391); /* 64 */
state[0] += a;
state[1] += b;
state[2] += c;
state[3] += d;
/* Zeroize sensitive information.
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
*/
MD5_memset ((POINTER)x, 0, sizeof (x));
}
/* Encodes input (UINT4) into output (unsigned char). Assumes len is
a multiple of 4.
*/
static void Encode (output, input, len)
unsigned char *output;
UINT4 *input;
unsigned int len;
{
unsigned int i, j;
for (i = 0, j = 0; j < len; i++, j += 4) {
output[j] = (unsigned char)(input[i] & 0xff);
output[j+1] = (unsigned char)((input[i] >> 8) & 0xff);
output[j+2] = (unsigned char)((input[i] >> 16) & 0xff);
output[j+3] = (unsigned char)((input[i] >> 24) & 0xff);
}
}
/* Decodes input (unsigned char) into output (UINT4). Assumes len is
a multiple of 4.
*/
static void Decode (output, input, len)
UINT4 *output;
unsigned char *input;
unsigned int len;
{
unsigned int i, j;
for (i = 0, j = 0; j < len; i++, j += 4)
output[i] = ((UINT4)input[j]) | (((UINT4)input[j+1]) << 8) |
(((UINT4)input[j+2]) << 16) | (((UINT4)input[j+3]) << 24);
}
/* Note: Replace "for loop" with standard memcpy if possible.
*/
static void MD5_memcpy (output, input, len)
POINTER output;
POINTER input;
unsigned int len;
{
unsigned int i;
for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
output[i] = input[i];
}
/* Note: Replace "for loop" with standard memset if possible.
*/
static void MD5_memset (output, value, len)
POINTER output;
int value;
unsigned int len;
{
unsigned int i;
for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
((char *)output)[i] = (char)value;
}
A.4 mddriver.c
/* MDDRIVER.C - test driver for MD2, MD4 and MD5
*/
/* Copyright (C) 1990-2, RSA Data Security, Inc. Created 1990. All
rights reserved.
RSA Data Security, Inc. makes no representations concerning either
the merchantability of this software or the suitability of this
software for any particular purpose. It is provided "as is"
without express or implied warranty of any kind.
These notices must be retained in any copies of any part of this
documentation and/or software.
*/
/* The following makes MD default to MD5 if it has not already been
defined with C compiler flags.
*/
#ifndef MD
#define MD MD5
#endif
#include
#include
#include
#include "global.h"
#if MD == 2
#include "md2.h"
#endif
#if MD == 4
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
#include "md4.h"
#endif
#if MD == 5
#include "md5.h"
#endif
/* Length of test block, number of test blocks.
*/
#define TEST_BLOCK_LEN 1000
#define TEST_BLOCK_COUNT 1000
static void MDString PROTO_LIST ((char *));
static void MDTimeTrial PROTO_LIST ((void));
static void MDTestSuite PROTO_LIST ((void));
static void MDFile PROTO_LIST ((char *));
static void MDFilter PROTO_LIST ((void));
static void MDPrint PROTO_LIST ((unsigned char [16]));
#if MD == 2
#define MD_CTX MD2_CTX
#define MDInit MD2Init
#define MDUpdate MD2Update
#define MDFinal MD2Final
#endif
#if MD == 4
#define MD_CTX MD4_CTX
#define MDInit MD4Init
#define MDUpdate MD4Update
#define MDFinal MD4Final
#endif
#if MD == 5
#define MD_CTX MD5_CTX
#define MDInit MD5Init
#define MDUpdate MD5Update
#define MDFinal MD5Final
#endif
/* Main driver.
Arguments (may be any combination):
-sstring - digests string
-t - runs time trial
-x - runs test script
filename - digests file
(none) - digests standard input
*/
int main (argc, argv)
int argc;
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
char *argv[];
{
int i;
if (argc > 1)
for (i = 1; i < argc; i++)
if (argv[i][0] == '-' && argv[i][1] == 's')
MDString (argv[i] + 2);
else if (strcmp (argv[i], "-t") == 0)
MDTimeTrial ();
else if (strcmp (argv[i], "-x") == 0)
MDTestSuite ();
else
MDFile (argv[i]);
else
MDFilter ();
return (0);
}
/* Digests a string and prints the result.
*/
static void MDString (string)
char *string;
{
MD_CTX context;
unsigned char digest[16];
unsigned int len = strlen (string);
MDInit (&context);
MDUpdate (&context, string, len);
MDFinal (digest, &context);
printf ("MD%d (\"%s\") = ", MD, string);
MDPrint (digest);
printf ("\n");
}
/* Measures the time to digest TEST_BLOCK_COUNT TEST_BLOCK_LEN-byte
blocks.
*/
static void MDTimeTrial ()
{
MD_CTX context;
time_t endTime, startTime;
unsigned char block[TEST_BLOCK_LEN], digest[16];
unsigned int i;
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
printf
("MD%d time trial. Digesting %d %d-byte blocks ...", MD,
TEST_BLOCK_LEN, TEST_BLOCK_COUNT);
/* Initialize block */
for (i = 0; i < TEST_BLOCK_LEN; i++)
block[i] = (unsigned char)(i & 0xff);
/* Start timer */
time (&startTime);
/* Digest blocks */
MDInit (&context);
for (i = 0; i < TEST_BLOCK_COUNT; i++)
MDUpdate (&context, block, TEST_BLOCK_LEN);
MDFinal (digest, &context);
/* Stop timer */
time (&endTime);
printf (" done\n");
printf ("Digest = ");
MDPrint (digest);
printf ("\nTime = %ld seconds\n", (long)(endTime-startTime));
printf
("Speed = %ld bytes/second\n",
(long)TEST_BLOCK_LEN * (long)TEST_BLOCK_COUNT/(endTime-startTime));
}
/* Digests a reference suite of strings and prints the results.
*/
static void MDTestSuite ()
{
printf ("MD%d test suite:\n", MD);
MDString ("");
MDString ("a");
MDString ("abc");
MDString ("message digest");
MDString ("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz");
MDString
("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789");
MDString
("1234567890123456789012345678901234567890\
1234567890123456789012345678901234567890");
}
/* Digests a file and prints the result.
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
*/
static void MDFile (filename)
char *filename;
{
FILE *file;
MD_CTX context;
int len;
unsigned char buffer[1024], digest[16];
if ((file = fopen (filename, "rb")) == NULL)
printf ("%s can't be opened\n", filename);
else {
MDInit (&context);
while (len = fread (buffer, 1, 1024, file))
MDUpdate (&context, buffer, len);
MDFinal (digest, &context);
fclose (file);
printf ("MD%d (%s) = ", MD, filename);
MDPrint (digest);
printf ("\n");
}
}
/* Digests the standard input and prints the result.
*/
static void MDFilter ()
{
MD_CTX context;
int len;
unsigned char buffer[16], digest[16];
MDInit (&context);
while (len = fread (buffer, 1, 16, stdin))
MDUpdate (&context, buffer, len);
MDFinal (digest, &context);
MDPrint (digest);
printf ("\n");
}
/* Prints a message digest in hexadecimal.
*/
static void MDPrint (digest)
unsigned char digest[16];
{
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RFC 1321 MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm April 1992
unsigned int i;
for (i = 0; i < 16; i++)
printf ("%02x", digest[i]);
}
A.5 Test suite
The MD5 test suite (driver option "-x") should print the following
results:
MD5 test suite:
MD5 ("") = d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e
MD5 ("a") = 0cc175b9c0f1b6a831c399e269772661
MD5 ("abc") = 900150983cd24fb0d6963f7d28e17f72
MD5 ("message digest") = f96b697d7cb7938d525a2f31aaf161d0
MD5 ("abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz") = c3fcd3d76192e4007dfb496cca67e13b
MD5 ("ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789") =
d174ab98d277d9f5a5611c2c9f419d9f
MD5 ("123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456
78901234567890") = 57edf4a22be3c955ac49da2e2107b67a
Security Considerations
The level of security discussed in this memo is considered to be
sufficient for implementing very high security hybrid digital-
signature schemes based on MD5 and a public-key cryptosystem.
Author's Address
Ronald L. Rivest
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Laboratory for Computer Science
NE43-324
545 Technology Square
Cambridge, MA 02139-1986
Phone: (617) 253-5880
EMail: rivest@theory.lcs.mit.edu
Rivest [Page 21]
cmd5checkpw-0.22/rfc2104.txt0100644000076400007640000005460407044050202014517 0ustar brushbrush
Network Working Group H. Krawczyk
Request for Comments: 2104 IBM
Category: Informational M. Bellare
UCSD
R. Canetti
IBM
February 1997
HMAC: Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication
Status of This Memo
This memo provides information for the Internet community. This memo
does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of
this memo is unlimited.
Abstract
This document describes HMAC, a mechanism for message authentication
using cryptographic hash functions. HMAC can be used with any
iterative cryptographic hash function, e.g., MD5, SHA-1, in
combination with a secret shared key. The cryptographic strength of
HMAC depends on the properties of the underlying hash function.
1. Introduction
Providing a way to check the integrity of information transmitted
over or stored in an unreliable medium is a prime necessity in the
world of open computing and communications. Mechanisms that provide
such integrity check based on a secret key are usually called
"message authentication codes" (MAC). Typically, message
authentication codes are used between two parties that share a secret
key in order to validate information transmitted between these
parties. In this document we present such a MAC mechanism based on
cryptographic hash functions. This mechanism, called HMAC, is based
on work by the authors [BCK1] where the construction is presented and
cryptographically analyzed. We refer to that work for the details on
the rationale and security analysis of HMAC, and its comparison to
other keyed-hash methods.
Krawczyk, et. al. Informational [Page 1]
RFC 2104 HMAC February 1997
HMAC can be used in combination with any iterated cryptographic hash
function. MD5 and SHA-1 are examples of such hash functions. HMAC
also uses a secret key for calculation and verification of the
message authentication values. The main goals behind this
construction are
* To use, without modifications, available hash functions.
In particular, hash functions that perform well in software,
and for which code is freely and widely available.
* To preserve the original performance of the hash function without
incurring a significant degradation.
* To use and handle keys in a simple way.
* To have a well understood cryptographic analysis of the strength of
the authentication mechanism based on reasonable assumptions on the
underlying hash function.
* To allow for easy replaceability of the underlying hash function in
case that faster or more secure hash functions are found or
required.
This document specifies HMAC using a generic cryptographic hash
function (denoted by H). Specific instantiations of HMAC need to
define a particular hash function. Current candidates for such hash
functions include SHA-1 [SHA], MD5 [MD5], RIPEMD-128/160 [RIPEMD].
These different realizations of HMAC will be denoted by HMAC-SHA1,
HMAC-MD5, HMAC-RIPEMD, etc.
Note: To the date of writing of this document MD5 and SHA-1 are the
most widely used cryptographic hash functions. MD5 has been recently
shown to be vulnerable to collision search attacks [Dobb]. This
attack and other currently known weaknesses of MD5 do not compromise
the use of MD5 within HMAC as specified in this document (see
[Dobb]); however, SHA-1 appears to be a cryptographically stronger
function. To this date, MD5 can be considered for use in HMAC for
applications where the superior performance of MD5 is critical. In
any case, implementers and users need to be aware of possible
cryptanalytic developments regarding any of these cryptographic hash
functions, and the eventual need to replace the underlying hash
function. (See section 6 for more information on the security of
HMAC.)
Krawczyk, et. al. Informational [Page 2]
RFC 2104 HMAC February 1997
2. Definition of HMAC
The definition of HMAC requires a cryptographic hash function, which
we denote by H, and a secret key K. We assume H to be a cryptographic
hash function where data is hashed by iterating a basic compression
function on blocks of data. We denote by B the byte-length of such
blocks (B=64 for all the above mentioned examples of hash functions),
and by L the byte-length of hash outputs (L=16 for MD5, L=20 for
SHA-1). The authentication key K can be of any length up to B, the
block length of the hash function. Applications that use keys longer
than B bytes will first hash the key using H and then use the
resultant L byte string as the actual key to HMAC. In any case the
minimal recommended length for K is L bytes (as the hash output
length). See section 3 for more information on keys.
We define two fixed and different strings ipad and opad as follows
(the 'i' and 'o' are mnemonics for inner and outer):
ipad = the byte 0x36 repeated B times
opad = the byte 0x5C repeated B times.
To compute HMAC over the data `text' we perform
H(K XOR opad, H(K XOR ipad, text))
Namely,
(1) append zeros to the end of K to create a B byte string
(e.g., if K is of length 20 bytes and B=64, then K will be
appended with 44 zero bytes 0x00)
(2) XOR (bitwise exclusive-OR) the B byte string computed in step
(1) with ipad
(3) append the stream of data 'text' to the B byte string resulting
from step (2)
(4) apply H to the stream generated in step (3)
(5) XOR (bitwise exclusive-OR) the B byte string computed in
step (1) with opad
(6) append the H result from step (4) to the B byte string
resulting from step (5)
(7) apply H to the stream generated in step (6) and output
the result
For illustration purposes, sample code based on MD5 is provided as an
appendix.
Krawczyk, et. al. Informational [Page 3]
RFC 2104 HMAC February 1997
3. Keys
The key for HMAC can be of any length (keys longer than B bytes are
first hashed using H). However, less than L bytes is strongly
discouraged as it would decrease the security strength of the
function. Keys longer than L bytes are acceptable but the extra
length would not significantly increase the function strength. (A
longer key may be advisable if the randomness of the key is
considered weak.)
Keys need to be chosen at random (or using a cryptographically strong
pseudo-random generator seeded with a random seed), and periodically
refreshed. (Current attacks do not indicate a specific recommended
frequency for key changes as these attacks are practically
infeasible. However, periodic key refreshment is a fundamental
security practice that helps against potential weaknesses of the
function and keys, and limits the damage of an exposed key.)
4. Implementation Note
HMAC is defined in such a way that the underlying hash function H can
be used with no modification to its code. In particular, it uses the
function H with the pre-defined initial value IV (a fixed value
specified by each iterative hash function to initialize its
compression function). However, if desired, a performance
improvement can be achieved at the cost of (possibly) modifying the
code of H to support variable IVs.
The idea is that the intermediate results of the compression function
on the B-byte blocks (K XOR ipad) and (K XOR opad) can be precomputed
only once at the time of generation of the key K, or before its first
use. These intermediate results are stored and then used to
initialize the IV of H each time that a message needs to be
authenticated. This method saves, for each authenticated message,
the application of the compression function of H on two B-byte blocks
(i.e., on (K XOR ipad) and (K XOR opad)). Such a savings may be
significant when authenticating short streams of data. We stress
that the stored intermediate values need to be treated and protected
the same as secret keys.
Choosing to implement HMAC in the above way is a decision of the
local implementation and has no effect on inter-operability.
Krawczyk, et. al. Informational [Page 4]
RFC 2104 HMAC February 1997
5. Truncated output
A well-known practice with message authentication codes is to
truncate the output of the MAC and output only part of the bits
(e.g., [MM, ANSI]). Preneel and van Oorschot [PV] show some
analytical advantages of truncating the output of hash-based MAC
functions. The results in this area are not absolute as for the
overall security advantages of truncation. It has advantages (less
information on the hash result available to an attacker) and
disadvantages (less bits to predict for the attacker). Applications
of HMAC can choose to truncate the output of HMAC by outputting the t
leftmost bits of the HMAC computation for some parameter t (namely,
the computation is carried in the normal way as defined in section 2
above but the end result is truncated to t bits). We recommend that
the output length t be not less than half the length of the hash
output (to match the birthday attack bound) and not less than 80 bits
(a suitable lower bound on the number of bits that need to be
predicted by an attacker). We propose denoting a realization of HMAC
that uses a hash function H with t bits of output as HMAC-H-t. For
example, HMAC-SHA1-80 denotes HMAC computed using the SHA-1 function
and with the output truncated to 80 bits. (If the parameter t is not
specified, e.g. HMAC-MD5, then it is assumed that all the bits of the
hash are output.)
6. Security
The security of the message authentication mechanism presented here
depends on cryptographic properties of the hash function H: the
resistance to collision finding (limited to the case where the
initial value is secret and random, and where the output of the
function is not explicitly available to the attacker), and the
message authentication property of the compression function of H when
applied to single blocks (in HMAC these blocks are partially unknown
to an attacker as they contain the result of the inner H computation
and, in particular, cannot be fully chosen by the attacker).
These properties, and actually stronger ones, are commonly assumed
for hash functions of the kind used with HMAC. In particular, a hash
function for which the above properties do not hold would become
unsuitable for most (probably, all) cryptographic applications,
including alternative message authentication schemes based on such
functions. (For a complete analysis and rationale of the HMAC
function the reader is referred to [BCK1].)
Krawczyk, et. al. Informational [Page 5]
RFC 2104 HMAC February 1997
Given the limited confidence gained so far as for the cryptographic
strength of candidate hash functions, it is important to observe the
following two properties of the HMAC construction and its secure use
for message authentication:
1. The construction is independent of the details of the particular
hash function H in use and then the latter can be replaced by any
other secure (iterative) cryptographic hash function.
2. Message authentication, as opposed to encryption, has a
"transient" effect. A published breaking of a message authentication
scheme would lead to the replacement of that scheme, but would have
no adversarial effect on information authenticated in the past. This
is in sharp contrast with encryption, where information encrypted
today may suffer from exposure in the future if, and when, the
encryption algorithm is broken.
The strongest attack known against HMAC is based on the frequency of
collisions for the hash function H ("birthday attack") [PV,BCK2], and
is totally impractical for minimally reasonable hash functions.
As an example, if we consider a hash function like MD5 where the
output length equals L=16 bytes (128 bits) the attacker needs to
acquire the correct message authentication tags computed (with the
_same_ secret key K!) on about 2**64 known plaintexts. This would
require the processing of at least 2**64 blocks under H, an
impossible task in any realistic scenario (for a block length of 64
bytes this would take 250,000 years in a continuous 1Gbps link, and
without changing the secret key K during all this time). This attack
could become realistic only if serious flaws in the collision
behavior of the function H are discovered (e.g. collisions found
after 2**30 messages). Such a discovery would determine the immediate
replacement of the function H (the effects of such failure would be
far more severe for the traditional uses of H in the context of
digital signatures, public key certificates, etc.).
Note: this attack needs to be strongly contrasted with regular
collision attacks on cryptographic hash functions where no secret key
is involved and where 2**64 off-line parallelizable (!) operations
suffice to find collisions. The latter attack is approaching
feasibility [VW] while the birthday attack on HMAC is totally
impractical. (In the above examples, if one uses a hash function
with, say, 160 bit of output then 2**64 should be replaced by 2**80.)
Krawczyk, et. al. Informational [Page 6]
RFC 2104 HMAC February 1997
A correct implementation of the above construction, the choice of
random (or cryptographically pseudorandom) keys, a secure key
exchange mechanism, frequent key refreshments, and good secrecy
protection of keys are all essential ingredients for the security of
the integrity verification mechanism provided by HMAC.
Krawczyk, et. al. Informational [Page 7]
RFC 2104 HMAC February 1997
Appendix -- Sample Code
For the sake of illustration we provide the following sample code for
the implementation of HMAC-MD5 as well as some corresponding test
vectors (the code is based on MD5 code as described in [MD5]).
/*
** Function: hmac_md5
*/
void
hmac_md5(text, text_len, key, key_len, digest)
unsigned char* text; /* pointer to data stream */
int text_len; /* length of data stream */
unsigned char* key; /* pointer to authentication key */
int key_len; /* length of authentication key */
caddr_t digest; /* caller digest to be filled in */
{
MD5_CTX context;
unsigned char k_ipad[65]; /* inner padding -
* key XORd with ipad
*/
unsigned char k_opad[65]; /* outer padding -
* key XORd with opad
*/
unsigned char tk[16];
int i;
/* if key is longer than 64 bytes reset it to key=MD5(key) */
if (key_len > 64) {
MD5_CTX tctx;
MD5Init(&tctx);
MD5Update(&tctx, key, key_len);
MD5Final(tk, &tctx);
key = tk;
key_len = 16;
}
/*
* the HMAC_MD5 transform looks like:
*
* MD5(K XOR opad, MD5(K XOR ipad, text))
*
* where K is an n byte key
* ipad is the byte 0x36 repeated 64 times
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RFC 2104 HMAC February 1997
* opad is the byte 0x5c repeated 64 times
* and text is the data being protected
*/
/* start out by storing key in pads */
bzero( k_ipad, sizeof k_ipad);
bzero( k_opad, sizeof k_opad);
bcopy( key, k_ipad, key_len);
bcopy( key, k_opad, key_len);
/* XOR key with ipad and opad values */
for (i=0; i<64; i++) {
k_ipad[i] ^= 0x36;
k_opad[i] ^= 0x5c;
}
/*
* perform inner MD5
*/
MD5Init(&context); /* init context for 1st
* pass */
MD5Update(&context, k_ipad, 64) /* start with inner pad */
MD5Update(&context, text, text_len); /* then text of datagram */
MD5Final(digest, &context); /* finish up 1st pass */
/*
* perform outer MD5
*/
MD5Init(&context); /* init context for 2nd
* pass */
MD5Update(&context, k_opad, 64); /* start with outer pad */
MD5Update(&context, digest, 16); /* then results of 1st
* hash */
MD5Final(digest, &context); /* finish up 2nd pass */
}
Test Vectors (Trailing '\0' of a character string not included in test):
key = 0x0b0b0b0b0b0b0b0b0b0b0b0b0b0b0b0b
key_len = 16 bytes
data = "Hi There"
data_len = 8 bytes
digest = 0x9294727a3638bb1c13f48ef8158bfc9d
key = "Jefe"
data = "what do ya want for nothing?"
data_len = 28 bytes
digest = 0x750c783e6ab0b503eaa86e310a5db738
key = 0xAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
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RFC 2104 HMAC February 1997
key_len 16 bytes
data = 0xDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD...
..DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD...
..DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD...
..DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD...
..DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD
data_len = 50 bytes
digest = 0x56be34521d144c88dbb8c733f0e8b3f6
Acknowledgments
Pau-Chen Cheng, Jeff Kraemer, and Michael Oehler, have provided
useful comments on early drafts, and ran the first interoperability
tests of this specification. Jeff and Pau-Chen kindly provided the
sample code and test vectors that appear in the appendix. Burt
Kaliski, Bart Preneel, Matt Robshaw, Adi Shamir, and Paul van
Oorschot have provided useful comments and suggestions during the
investigation of the HMAC construction.
References
[ANSI] ANSI X9.9, "American National Standard for Financial
Institution Message Authentication (Wholesale)," American
Bankers Association, 1981. Revised 1986.
[Atk] Atkinson, R., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 1826, August
1995.
[BCK1] M. Bellare, R. Canetti, and H. Krawczyk,
"Keyed Hash Functions and Message Authentication",
Proceedings of Crypto'96, LNCS 1109, pp. 1-15.
(http://www.research.ibm.com/security/keyed-md5.html)
[BCK2] M. Bellare, R. Canetti, and H. Krawczyk,
"Pseudorandom Functions Revisited: The Cascade Construction",
Proceedings of FOCS'96.
[Dobb] H. Dobbertin, "The Status of MD5 After a Recent Attack",
RSA Labs' CryptoBytes, Vol. 2 No. 2, Summer 1996.
http://www.rsa.com/rsalabs/pubs/cryptobytes.html
[PV] B. Preneel and P. van Oorschot, "Building fast MACs from hash
functions", Advances in Cryptology -- CRYPTO'95 Proceedings,
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer-Verlag Vol.963,
1995, pp. 1-14.
[MD5] Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm",
RFC 1321, April 1992.
Krawczyk, et. al. Informational [Page 10]
RFC 2104 HMAC February 1997
[MM] Meyer, S. and Matyas, S.M., Cryptography, New York Wiley,
1982.
[RIPEMD] H. Dobbertin, A. Bosselaers, and B. Preneel, "RIPEMD-160: A
strengthened version of RIPEMD", Fast Software Encryption,
LNCS Vol 1039, pp. 71-82.
ftp://ftp.esat.kuleuven.ac.be/pub/COSIC/bosselae/ripemd/.
[SHA] NIST, FIPS PUB 180-1: Secure Hash Standard, April 1995.
[Tsu] G. Tsudik, "Message authentication with one-way hash
functions", In Proceedings of Infocom'92, May 1992.
(Also in "Access Control and Policy Enforcement in
Internetworks", Ph.D. Dissertation, Computer Science
Department, University of Southern California, April 1991.)
[VW] P. van Oorschot and M. Wiener, "Parallel Collision
Search with Applications to Hash Functions and Discrete
Logarithms", Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Conf. Computer and
Communications Security, Fairfax, VA, November 1994.
Authors' Addresses
Hugo Krawczyk
IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
P.O.Box 704
Yorktown Heights, NY 10598
EMail: hugo@watson.ibm.com
Mihir Bellare
Dept of Computer Science and Engineering
Mail Code 0114
University of California at San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093
EMail: mihir@cs.ucsd.edu
Ran Canetti
IBM T.J. Watson Research Center
P.O.Box 704
Yorktown Heights, NY 10598
EMail: canetti@watson.ibm.com
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